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CureFactor for Gastritis

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Gastritis:
Gastritis is a common gastrointestinal  disorder,caused due to inflammation of gastric mucosal lining characterised by epigastric pain,nausea and vomiting.

ETIOLOGY:
Causes of Gastritis are classified according to clinical type as erosive gastritis cause and non-erosive gastritis cause
Erosive gastritis-Irritants like alcohol,smoking,spices;corrosives like acids and alkalies;severe stress like trauma,shock,burns;it is common in any age group
Non-erosive cause are of two types-type A cause-pernicious anaemia,gastric ulcer,gastric carcinoma. type B-infection with helicobacter pylori is common in middle age group.

CLINICAL FEATURES:
Clinically Gastritis symptoms have a sudden onset(erosive Gastritis) or insidious onset(non-erosive Gastritis). Pain is aggravated by eating,anorexia,nausea,vomiting,upper abdominal pain,haematemesis and malena,hiccough,anxiety and restlessness.

COMPLICATIONS:
In acute gastritis(erosive Gastritis) hypovolaemic shock(severe bleeding),iron deficiency anaemia due to chronic occult bleeding.
GENERAL MANAGEMENT
Adequate physical and mental rest,liquid bland diet,avoid irregular meals,avoid irritant things,maintain fluid,electrolytes balance,correct anaemia.

CureFactor for Hiatus hernia

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Hiatus hernia:
Hiatus hernia is common gastrointestinal  disorder, caused due to herniation of gastric mucosa and lower part of oesophagus within the chest cavity through esophageal hiatus of diaphragm causing reflux oesophagitis and characterised by heartburn,substernal and dysphagia.

ETIOLOGY:
Hiatus hernia is congenital condition but sometimes it can be acquired.
Acquired causes are muscular weakness especially seen in old people due to muscular degeneration.
In conditions like pregnancy,ascites,abdominal tumour due to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Obesity is one of the cause for Hiatus hernia due to decreased elasticity of crus.
Hiatus hernia is common in middle age,common in females.

CLINICAL FEATURES:
Clinically Hiatus hernia is characterised by pain around the substernal region,which may radiate to shoulder,burning sensation(heartburn). Pain is worse on stooping,lying down soon after meals,heavy meals,hot drinks,spicy food,alcohol. Pain is better by sitting upright,intake of antacids.
water brash-regurgitation of food into mouth,which is worse on bending or stooping,sour eructations. Dysphagia(difficult in swallowing)-sensation of food sticking in substernal region,hiccoughs due to precordial distress.

COMPLICATIONS:
Complications of Hiatus hernia are strangulation,oesophageal ulceration,severe bleeding,perforation.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT:
Management of Hiatus hernia is very important,first to modify the cause;weight reduction if obeses;maintain upright position after meals;small frequent meals;dont sleep immediately after meals;eat dinner early to avoid sleeping immediately after meals;sleep in propped posture;avoid tea,coffee,tea,avoid heavy weight lifting.
If condition is severe advice for surgery.

CureFactor for Leukoplakia

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Leukoplakia:
Leukoplakia is condition that affects the gastrointestinal l tract especially the gums,tongue,lip,cheek.
Leukoplakia is a premalignant condition(condition that may become malignant if not treated early) slowly developing change in oral mucosa characterised by thickened white,flat,firmly attached patches..

ETIOLOGY:

  • The exact cause of Leukoplakia  is not known.
  • Predisposing factors of Leukoplakia are smoking,betel nut chewing,tobacco,alcohol,spicy food,sharp/jagged teeth,badly fitting of dentures.
  • Leukoplakia is common in males.
  • Leukoplakia seen in immunocompromised individual is called hairy Leukoplakia .

CLINICAL FEATURES:
Clinically Leukoplakia is characterised by onset of symptoms which are insidious. Symptoms like sensitiveness to food,drinks. Leukoplakia affects gums,lip,cheeks and tongue.
Signs of Leucoplakia are the characterised by small firm patches which is persistent,gradually enlarging,white in colour,irregular,sharply defined,flat or raised,thickened,rough to touch,surrounding mucous membrane is red. If induration of the patch is seen,it indicates malignancy.

COMPLICATIONS:
Leukoplakia is pre-malignant condition,complications are changing of pre-malignant condition into malignant condition like fissuring,ulceration.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT:
Avoid all the mentioned predisposing factors like quit smoking,stop chewing betel nuts..etc.
Maintain oral hygiene.

CureFactor for Fluorosis

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Fluorosis:
Fluorosis a condition resulting from excessive prolonged ingestion of fluoride and characterised by mottling of dental enamel and osteosclerosis.

ETIOLOGY:

  • Fluorosis is caused due to excessive consumption of water which has high concentration of fluoride around 3-4 mg/litre.
  • Fluorosis is common in places like Andhra pradesh,Punjab,Haryana,Karnataka,Kerala,Tamil nadu.
  • Fluorosis is common in males compared to females.

CLINICAL FEATURES:
Clinically Flourosis is characterised by dental Flourosis and skeletal Flourosis
In dental Flourosis,mottling of dental enamel,loss of shiny appearance of teeth,chalk white patches form on teeth,gradually brownish-black discolouration,pitting,loss of enamel.
In skeletal Fluorosis ,symptoms like pain and rigidity of joints and spine,paraesthesia in limbs,exostoses due to irregular bone deposition along anterior borders of tibia,near tibial tubercle,near olecranon,along the medial border of scapula,near vertebral spinous processes,kyphosis(forward bending of spine).

COMPLICATIONS: Dental hypoplasia,permanent deformity and disability,spinal cord compression.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT:
Defluorination of water,maintain good general health,physiotherapy.

CureFactor for Epidemic dropsy

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Epidemic dropsy:
Epidemic dropsy is tropical disease caused due to consumption of adulterated mustard oil with argemone. Epidemic dropsy is characterised by systemic illness affecting almost all the systems of the body especially GIT disturbances,oedema of lower limbs,blotchy erythema of skin and features of cardiac failure.

ETIOLOGY: Epidemic dropsy is distributed in region where consumption of mustard oil is more especially in places like Bangladesh,Assam,Bihar,Uttar pradesh. Epidemic dropsy is caused due to contamination of mustard oil with argemone mexicana(prickly poppy) which contains toxic alkaloid(sanguinarine). Common in lower and middle class.

CLINICAL FEATURES:
Clinically Epidemic dropsy is characterised by insidious onset or sometimes suddden onset of symptoms.
Premonitory symptoms-vague abdominal pain,flatulence and diarrhea,heaviness of lower extremities,with tingling and numbness,breathlessness on exertion,mild to moderate fever.
GIT symptoms-anorexia,nausea,voimiting ,abdominal pain and borborygmi,diarrhea due to intestinal mucosal congestion,bleeding from gums,haematemesis and melaena ,bleeding piles.
Skin symptoms-oedema of legs associated with erythema(due to subcutaneous vascular dilatation),ecchymotic patches(due to telangiectatic dilation of blood vessels) commonly seen over lower part of chest,abdomen,buttocks and thighs,gradually oedema spreads to thighs,sacral region,trunk,hands and ultimately face is also involved patchy pigmentation over the forehead and malar bone.

  • CVS symptoms like dyspnoea and palpitation on exertion.
  • Nervous system-heaviness of limbs with tingling numbness.
  • Urinary system-oligouria(decreased urine output).
  • COMPLICATIONS-cardiac failure,glaucoma.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT:
Use of contaminated mustard oil to be stopped for cooking purpose.
Salt restricted diet,nutritious easily digestible diet.

CureFactor for Tropical sprue

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Tropical sprue:
Tropical sprue is ailmentary deficiency in gastric secretion and inability to absorb adequately glucose,calcium and certain other constituents. Tropical sprue is characterised by flatulence,fatty diarrhea,sore throat,weight loss and anaemia.

ETIOLOGY :
Tropical sprue is common in middle age people, Tropical sprue is common in middle age group individual
and in females especially pregnant women.
Tropical sprue is common in hot,damp costal climate,Tropical sprue is common in rainy weather.
Predisposing factors of Tropical sprue are prolonged residence in endemic area and hills,chronic dysentery,mucous colitis.

CLINICAL FEATURES:
Clinically Tropical sprue is characterised by insidious onset with symptoms like diarrhea(fatty),weakness,weight loss.
GIT(gastro-intestinal tract) symptoms are soreness of mouth,tongue red and inflamed,superficial erosions involving buccal mucosa and tongue,excessive salivation. Stools are initially watery,later on pale,pasty,bulky,foul and frothy.
paraesthesia,with numbness and tingling,tetany in advance cases due to calcium deficiency.
appearance of skin in Tropical sprue-muddy complexion,patchy pigmentation over malar region,nails brittle and ridged,clubbing present.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT:
Main emphasis is to treat the patient as whole rather than on a single therapeutic measures,complete rest,diet should contain proteins,low fats and carbohydrates like milk,curd.avoid spicy food,alcohol, change of environment is always advantageous.

CureFactor for Dengue

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Dengue:
Dengue one of the vector borne disease is caused by the bite of aedes aegypti mosquito. Dengue is an acute viral infection transmitted by the bite of aedes aegypti,characterised by saddle back high fever,intense headache,body ache,rash,generalised lymphadenopathy and haemorrhage.

ETIOLOGY:

There is no known cause for Dengue. Aedes mosquito is the only cause for Dengue.

PATHOGENESIS:
IN Dengue due to the bite of aedes mosquito,the number of paltelet counts decrease below 1 lach per cumm. Platelet is known to be activated during small wounds,since the number of platelet counts are low,small wounds bleed easily causing haemorrhage and blood loss.

CLINICAL FEATURES:
Clinically dengue is characterised into three stages

  1. Dengue fever(break bone fever)
  2. Dengue haemorrhagic fever(DHF).
  3. Dengue shock syndrome.

In dengue fever,the onset of fever is abrupt,with chill and high grade fever,severe distressing pain(break-bone disease),headache over the frontal region,retro-orbital pain(key symptom),loins,limb,joints pain. Pains are aggravated by movement,even move over the ebd brings on pain,intense prostration,anorexia,nausea,vomiting,coryza,lachrymation,delirium,eruptions that appear on the 4th or 6th day with second rise of fever,disappear in order of their appearance by scaly desquamation. Urine,scanty and high coloured.
Criteria for dengue fever:
two or more of the following should be present

  1. Severe headache
  2. Retro-orbital pain
  3. Sever myalgia/arthralgia/back pain,haemorrhagic manifestations,leucopenia.

Complications of Dengue fever are hyperpyrexia,severe haemorrhage.
In Dengue haemorrhagic fever,is evident by plasma leakage. clinically its is characterised by abrupt onset of symptoms with high grade fever,chill,distressing joint,muscle pain,intense prostration,epistaxis,bleeding from gums,haematemesis,melaena.
In Dengue shock syndrome, is manisfested wityh haemorrhagic manifestations having the features of Dengue fever initial
haemorrhagic manifestations,bleeding from injection or other sites,thrombocytopenia less then 100,000/mm or less.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT:
bed rest,antipyretic therapy for fever above 39 degree celsius,cold sponging during fever,oral rehydration therapy with or its equivalent if patient develops moderate dehydration due to vomiting and high fever,IV replacement of electrolytes and fluids,platelet transfusion if haemorrhage.

CureFactor for Rabies

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Rabies:
Rabies an acute viral infection caused due to the virus ‘rabies virus’.
Rabies virus affects the central nervous system,characterised by marked irritability,anxiety,fear,dysphagia moderate fever with fatal outcome. Very commonly rabies is transmitted by the bite of the dog’s saliva.

ETIOLOGY:

  • Rabies IS Common worldwide and cases are recorded all over the globe. In Indai,street dogs are the major cause for Rabies.
  • Rabies is caused due virus rabies virus.
  • Source of Rabies infection is saliva of rabid animal.
  • Rabies is transmitted by the bite of rabid animal.
  • Incubation period of Rabies is depend on the age,site of bite and severity of wound. It is shorter in childrens and bite on leg has longer incubation period(60 days).

CLINICAL FEATURES:
Clinically Rabies is characterised by prodrome like pain,irritation at the site of the bite,fear,intolerance of loud sounds,irritability,hoarseness,difficulty in swallowing ,anorexia,nausea,headache,myalgia,mild fever.
Symptoms like excitation,agitation,hallucinations,muscle spasms,choking,hydrophobia,excessive sensitiveness to light,noise,touch and air,high fever,convulsions.

COMPLICATIONS-Respiratory failure.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT:
Treatment of wound(animal bite)-flush the wound with water atlaest for 5 minutes,explore and remove foreign body,avoid suturing,occlusive dressing.
During symptomatic phase avoid noise,bright light,IV fluids,tracheostomy,ventilatory support in case of respiratory attacks due to respiratory muscle spasm.

PROPHYLACTIC MEASURES
Immunisation according to the rabies immunisation schedule.

CureFactor for Cholera

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Cholera:
Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria vibrio cholerae. cholera is a tropical disease and is characterised by “rice watery stool” diarrhea which are profuse and copious and vomiting with rapid depletion of fluids and electrolytes,resulting in circulatory collapse.

ETIOLOGY:

  • Cholera is spread worldwide,with cases recorded all over the globe.
  • Cholera is caused due the bacteria vibrio cholerae.
  • Source of Cholera is human.
  • Cholera is transmitted by faeco-oral route.
  • Cholera spreads through contaminated water.
  • Incubation period of Cholera is 24-72 hours.CLINICAL FEATURES

Clinically,Cholera is divided into three stages:

  1. Stage of evacuation.
  2. Stage of collapse.
  3. Stage of reaction.

In stage of evacuation,symptoms of diarrhea which is painless,profuse and copious,amounting 40 stools in 24 hours.
Character of stools is rice watery stool with flakjes of mucus. Vomiting is effortless,copious and not preceeded by nausea.
In stage of collapse,symptoms like dehydration,cramps,increased thirst,oliguria,restlessness.
In stage of reaction,symptoms start disappearing like cessation of vomiting,diminution of stools

COMPLICATIONS: Renal failure,circulatory failure,metabolic acidosis,hypoglycaemia.

Clinical types of cholera:

  1. Cholera sicca(commonly seen in old and debilitated persons- this type of cholera has bad prognostic outcome).
  2. Malignant(asiatic)Cholera(epidemic type with good prognosis).
  3. Cholera ambulans.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT:
Bed rest along with fluid electrolyte replacement,intravenous and oral route.
ORS,fruit juice,coconut water,apple juice,plain gelatin,isabgol husk in water,especially when diarrhea.

PROPHYLACTIC MEASURES:
Isolation of Food handlers to be excluded from work till three consecutive negative stool samples.
hygienic disposal of sewage disposal,pure water supply,Immunisation.

CureFactor for Enteric fever (Typhoid fever)

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Enteric fever (Typhoid fever):
Enteric fever is common fever that is seen in India and is common tropical disease caused due to the bacteria salmonella typhi.
Enteric fever is an acute intestinal infection caused by salmonella typhi,characterised by insidious onset of fever,intense headache with relative bradycardia,red coloured eruptions,abdominal discomfort and splenomegaly.

ETIOLOGY:

  • Enteric fever is commonly seen worldwide,with cases recorded all over the globe.
  • Enteric fever is common in summer season.
  • Enteric fever is caused due to the bacteria salmonella typhi.
  • Source of Enteric fever is asymptomatic carrier(asymptomatic carrier means person who has the infection in his body but without any symptoms and has 100 % chance of spread the disease to others).
  • Enteric fever is transmitted by faeco-oral route.
  • Enteric fever is spread by 5 F’s(fly,fluid,finger,food and formites).
  • Predisposing factors of Enteric fever are poor resistance,overcrowding,poor sanitation,malnutrition,malnutrition.
  • Incubation period is 7-21 days.

CLINICAL FEATURES:
Clinically Enteric fever is characterised by symptoms which have variations and symptoms lasts in 4 week
In First week,onset of symptoms is insidious,fever more in the evening,frontal headache,bodyache,anorexia,constipation,distension of abdomen,lassitude. Step ladder rise of fever with fever rising at the end of the week.
In second week,fever continous to peak,headache is reduced,marked prostration,apathy,listlessness,delirium,stupor,cough,epitaxis,distension of abdomen. In second week,rashes start appearing especially on the trunk. Rashes are macular,2-4 mm in diameter,appears in crop,fades on pressure.
In third week,with mild infection(with favourable outcome)symptoms like prostration,appetite returns,fever subsides by lysis,abdominal symptoms subside. With severe outcomes,symptoms like marked prostration,fever falls to lysis,delirium stupor,carphology,muscular twitchings,incontinence of urine.

COMPLICATIONS:

Especially seen in third week of the disease state-intestinal haemorrhage,intestinal perforation,peritonitis,renal failure. In fourth week,symptoms subsides all the generals are normal with appetite normal,fever comes to normal.

GENERAL MANAGEMENT:
Bed rest,cold sponging in high fever,diet-liquid diet consisting of fruit juice,maintain oral hygiene,maiantain electrolyte and fluid balance.

PROPHYLACTIC MEASURES:
Isolation of Food handlers to be excluded from work till shown as not to be chronic carriers,immunisation is contraindicated in outbreak control,for when it is given in incubation period as it can precipitate the clinical disease.
early detection and treatment of cases and carriers,survillance and education of chronic carriers,hygienic disposal of sewage disposal,pure water supply,pasteurisation of milk.
Immunisation in endemic areas,travellers and laboratory workers.