Viral hepatitis is infection caused due to hepatitis viruses,which affects the liver(hepatocytes) causing jaundice.
Viral hepatis is characterised by anorexia,nausea,vomiting,fever followed by jaundice. Different species of hepatitis virus are hepatitis A virus(HAV),hepatitis B virus(HBV),hepatitis C virus(HCV),hepatitis D virus(HDV),hepatitis E virus(HEV).
Viral hepatitis caused due to hepatitis viruses(HAV,HBV,HCV,HDV,HEV).
Spread of Viral hepatitis depends on the type of virus
- HAV-faeco-oral route
- HBV-Sexually transmitted,blood,saliva,breast milk. high risk factors for HBV are health care workers,laboratory technicians,blood transfusion recipients,homosexuals,prostitutes,IV drug abusers,tattooing.
- HEV-faeco-oral route.
Incubation period of Viral hepatitis depends on the type of virus
- HAV:2-4 weeks
- HBV:4-24 weeks.
- HCV:2-26 weeks.
- HDV:6-9 weeks.
- HEV:3-8 weeks.
- Age group-HAV & HEV-is common in young adults and childrens.
The onset of Viral hepatitis symptoms depends on the type of virus
Clinically,Viral hepatitis is characterised by three stages
- Pre-icteric stage(duration:7 days).
- Icteric stage(duration:7 days).
- Convalescent stage(duration:7 days).
In pre-icteric stage,symptoms like low grade fever,arthralgia,myalgia,anorexia,nausea,vomiting,diarrhea,weakness,malaise,easy fatiguability,headache,dull,aching pain in the upper abdomen.
In icteric stage symtoms like anorexia,nausea,vomiting persists,fever subsides,dark yellow urine,light coloured stools,loss of weight.
In convalescent stage,patients feels better,appetite normal,jaundice disappears.
Post hepatitis syndrome,haemorrhage,secondary infection,acute hepatic failure,recurrent hepatitis.
- Therapeutic aim is to promote natural recovery,prevent complications,provide symtomatic medical treatment..
- Adequate intake of fluids,bed rest until symtoms and signs disappear.
- Diet-nutritious diet,high protein,high carbohydrate diet.