Tetanus is highly infectious disease commonly seen in childrens and is one of killer disease of India.
Tetanus is an acute infectious disease caused by toxin of bacterium clostridium tetani,following wound infection and is characterised by rigidity and stiffness of jaw muscles,followed by painful generalised spasms.
- Tetanus is spread worldwide,with cases being recorded all over the globe.
- Tetanus is caused due to toxin fo bacterium clostridium tetani.
- Source of Tetanus are soil,gastro-intestinal tracts of animals.
- Tetanus is transmitted by direct contamination of penetrating injuries,wounds,burns and of umbilical stumps by dust or faeces,also by use of contaminated syringes.
- Incubation of Tetanus is 7-10 days.
Tetanus is divided in to two stages
- Prodromal stage
- Hypertonus stage
In prodromal stage of duration 24 hours,symptoms like malaise,restlessness,irritability,fever.
In hypertonus stage,symptoms like trismus(painless spasm of masseter leading to lockjaw),risus sardonicus(facial spasm due to contraction of frontalis and muscles at angle of jaw),neck stiffness,rigidity of trunk muscles,neck retraction,abdominal rigidity.
Complications like asphyxia,pneumonia,circulatory failure,dehydration,hyperpyrexia.
- Bed rest in the dark room,minimum stimulation.
- Mild cases-light semisolid food,small meals at frequent intervals,2000 calories per day.
- Severe cases with lockjaw-I.V fluids because the patient can swallow food,tracheostomy,if laryngeal spasm.