Sciatica is pain along the course of the sciatic nerve. The nerve distribution of The sciatic nerve is nearly the whole of the skin of the leg, the muscles of the back of the thigh, and those of the leg and foot. sciatic nerve is longest single nerve in human body.
Cause of sciatica are:
- Infective cause-leprosy,post herpetic neuralgia.
- Iatrogenic causes-nerve injury due to injection.
- Mechanical cause-compression due to tumour of cauda equina,arachnoiditis,lumbar disc prolapse.
Clinically symptoms of sciatica start suddenly,with pain which is vague aching to severe unbearable neuralgic pain with parasthesia. Location of pain is from lumbar region radiates to gluteal and upto great toe of foot. pain is worse on stretching the limb,coughing. pain better by rest,weakness of affected limb,numbness of affected limb. patient presents with history of trauma,exposure cold,damp weather.
In acute stage-complete bed rest on hard bed for 2 weeks,local application of heat,avoid stress over the spine.
In chronic stage-complete bed rest for 6 weeks,supine posture.