Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD):
Posttraumatic stress disorder is delayed and protracted response to stressful event or situation of exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature outside the range of everyday human experience,which is likely to cause pervasive distress in almost anyone.
Psycho-pathology mechanism of PTSD
any kind of stress,first effects the hypothalamo-pituatary-adrenal axis cause disturbance in its function. Central catecholamine activity especially nor-adrenalin,which is responsible in retrieval of memory.
Any kind of traumatic event or experience which is an insult to personal integrity,self esteem and security
- Natural disasters like earthquake,floods.
- Sexual abuse.
- Physical assault.
- Any kind of event that would spoil one’s normal living.
Past history of psychiatric disorder.
Premorbid personality is neurotic traits.
- Onset of PTSD is delayed taking weeks or months between the traumatic event and onset of symptoms.
- History of life threatening event and intensity of trauma which is outside normal human experience.
- In PTSD,re appearance of traumatic experience,nightmares,dream about the event that took place in the past(traumatic event),distress.
- Symptoms like depression,disturbed sleep,irritability,outbursts of anger.
- Avoidance response like avoiding activities and situations suggest PTSD.
- Due to PTSD patient ends up get addicted to alcohol,drugs to get out of the mental trauma,suicidal tendencies,interference with interpersonal relationship.
- Prognosis is variable,recovery occurs in majority of cases within a year,small proportion of cases may have chronic,life long relapsing course.
- Supportive therapy-reassurance.
- Immediate counselling-aim is to prevent development of disorder.