Polio one of the biggest problem in India,is an infectious viral disease caused by polio virus.
Polio is an acute viral infectious disease caused by polio virus that causes damage to anterior horn cells,characterised by fever followed by asymmetrical flaccid paralysis.
- Polio is spread worldwide,and cases are recorded all over the globe. recently India is removed from the list of polio by WHO(World Health Organization).
- Polio is caused due to poliovirus which is a virus.
- source of Polio is human faeces,respiratory discharges.
- Polio is transmitted by faeco-oral route.
- predisposing causes of Polio-poor sanitation,overcrowding,poor nutrition.
- Incubation period of Polio is 1-2 weeks.
The entry of virus through faeco-oral route,enters intestine where it multiples and from here travels to regional lymph nodes and reticuloendothelial structures from where it enters the blood circulation. In case of strong immunity it does’nt reach the anterior horn cell,but in case of poor immunity it reaches the anterior horn cells of peripheral nerves. The neurons undergo varying amount of damage,few permanenetly gets destroyed,few undergo functional impairment due to tissue oedema. The neurons which are permanenetly damaged,lead to permanenet paralysis,while others may regenerate leading to partial recovery or paralysis. It is this residual paralysis(called post-polio residual paralysis PPRP),which is responsible for the host of problmes associated with paralytic limb.
Polio is divided into three stages
- Pre-paralytic stage
- Paralytic stage
- Stage of residual disability
In pre-paralytic stage,onset of symptoms are sudden,with fever,muscular pains,occipital headache,nausea,vomiting,malaise,weakness,anorexia,diarrhea and backache worse on movement.
In paralytic stage,fever subsides,muscular pains,weakness,especially of lower limbs.
In stage of residual disability,symptoms like muscular wasting,contracture,deformity.
Complications are of immediate and late complications.
Immediate complications are brain and bulbar involvement causes respiratory difficulties and death,residual paralysis.
Late complications are shortening of limbs and retarded bone growth in affected limb.
- Immediate measures
- Prevent close contacts,hygienic sewega disposal.
- Immunization of oral polio vaccine(OPV).