Pertussis (Whooping Cough):
Pertussis is infectious disease commonly seen in childrens and is one of the killer disease in India.
Pertussis is acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria ‘Bordetella pertussis’. It is characterised by spasmodic cough accompanied by an inspiratory whoop.
- Pertussis is spread worldwide and cases are recorded all over the globe.
- Pertussis is common in cold,winter season.
- Causative organism is bordetella pertussis.
- Pertussis bacteria are found in the nasal discharges of infected human.
- Pertussis is transmitted by droplet infection.
- Incubation period is 7-14 days.
- Common age group is mostly under 4 years.
- Pertussis symptoms occur three brief stages which are
Catarrhal stage(duration:2 weeks).
- Pertussis in catarrhal stage has an insidious onset with symptoms like mild fever,coryza,sneezing,lachrymation.
character of cough is mild initially,paroxysmal,intense later on,worse during night.
- Spasmodic stage(duration:2 weeks)
- Pertussis in spasmodic stage,the episodes of cough 10-15 paroxysms in 24 hours. duration of paroxysm is 5-10 minutes.
- Cough worse from exposure,excitement,feeding.
- During paroxysm vomiting usually at the end of the bout with face deep red,purple or cyanosed,great distess. after paroxysm,child sleeps. fever subsides.
- Convalescent stage(duration:2 weeks)
- Paroxysm subsides,whoop ceases,vomiting ceases,appetite returns.
- Respiratory: Pneumonia,Atelectasis,Bronchiectasis,Asphysia and Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
- Cerebral: Cerebral anoxia,Convulsions.
- Others: Subconjunctival haemorrhage,Ulceration of frenulum.
- Isolation to avoid spread to others.
- Bed rest,especially during spasmodic stage.
- Diet-liquid,semisolid,easily digestable,frequent small meals at short intervals.
- During paroxysm-hold the child down position to avoid aspiration of vomit.
- Administration of DPT vaccine.