CureFactor for Mental Retardation

Mental Retardation:
Mental retardation is a condition characterised by reduced intellectual capacity to point of adaptive functioning,impaired learning ability and social inadequacy.

ETIOLOGY:

  • Prenatal causes
  • Chromosomal anomaly-down’s syndrome.
  • Cranial malformations-hydrocephalus.

Perinatal Causes:

  • Infections especially of TORCH-Toxoplasmosis,Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes infections.
  • Maternal drug ingestion.
  • Prematurity.
  • Perinatal hypoxia.
  • Birth trauma.

Postnatal Causes:

  • Head injury
  • Infections like meningitis,encephalitis.
  • Malnutrition.

Clinical Features:
Look of mentally retarded person

  • The head is usually smaller than normal,with high palate
  • Jaw may protrude or recede.
  • The pinna(part of the ear) often deformed.
  • Eyes often abnormal,marked epicanthic folds.
  • Nose flattened usually.

Physiological problems:

  • Circulation poor resulting in cyanosis of extremities.
  • Convulsions frequently occur.
  • Delayed puberty with reproduction possible.
  • If the intelligence levels are very low
  • Poorly coordinated gestures,child runs around the room moving objects around him(hyperkinetic mental deficiency).
  • In severe cases

Child lies lifeless,dribbling of saliva,teeth grinding due to delayed dentition,masturbation especially seen in attention deficit personality disorder(ADHD) of the psychiatric disorder.

  • Mental development in a mentally retarded person depends from low backward to unable to do anything state.
  • Delayed milestones(milestones mean proper development and growth of growing childrens).
  • Repeated failure to learn in school,not able to keep up what he is learning,inefficiency in work,inadequate practical knowledge.

How do you investigate a case of mental retardation:
Mental retardation is assisted based on intelligent quotient(I.Q)
IQ is defined as mental age by actual age multiplied by 100
IQ= mental age x 100/actual age.
Grading of IQ
IQ >120: super intelligence
IQ 80-100: normal
IQ 50-80: low backward
IQ 30-50: trainable
IQ <30: imbecile

General Management:

  • Inform the guardian’s about the diagnosis
  • Parent’s are to be educated telling them what the patient is suffering from and how he is suppose to be taken care.
  • Investigations to be done to assess the mental power of the patient
  • Based on his IQ level the parents are adviced to send their kids to that particular schools

IQ level 50-80:special schools
IQ level 30-50:trained schools
IQ level below 30:custodial care.

  • Sympathetic attitude from parents,relatives,neighbours.