Mental retardation is a condition characterised by reduced intellectual capacity to point of adaptive functioning,impaired learning ability and social inadequacy.
- Prenatal causes
- Chromosomal anomaly-down’s syndrome.
- Cranial malformations-hydrocephalus.
- Infections especially of TORCH-Toxoplasmosis,Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Herpes infections.
- Maternal drug ingestion.
- Perinatal hypoxia.
- Birth trauma.
- Head injury
- Infections like meningitis,encephalitis.
Look of mentally retarded person
- The head is usually smaller than normal,with high palate
- Jaw may protrude or recede.
- The pinna(part of the ear) often deformed.
- Eyes often abnormal,marked epicanthic folds.
- Nose flattened usually.
- Circulation poor resulting in cyanosis of extremities.
- Convulsions frequently occur.
- Delayed puberty with reproduction possible.
- If the intelligence levels are very low
- Poorly coordinated gestures,child runs around the room moving objects around him(hyperkinetic mental deficiency).
- In severe cases
Child lies lifeless,dribbling of saliva,teeth grinding due to delayed dentition,masturbation especially seen in attention deficit personality disorder(ADHD) of the psychiatric disorder.
- Mental development in a mentally retarded person depends from low backward to unable to do anything state.
- Delayed milestones(milestones mean proper development and growth of growing childrens).
- Repeated failure to learn in school,not able to keep up what he is learning,inefficiency in work,inadequate practical knowledge.
How do you investigate a case of mental retardation:
Mental retardation is assisted based on intelligent quotient(I.Q)
IQ is defined as mental age by actual age multiplied by 100
IQ= mental age x 100/actual age.
Grading of IQ
IQ >120: super intelligence
IQ 80-100: normal
IQ 50-80: low backward
IQ 30-50: trainable
IQ <30: imbecile
- Inform the guardian’s about the diagnosis
- Parent’s are to be educated telling them what the patient is suffering from and how he is suppose to be taken care.
- Investigations to be done to assess the mental power of the patient
- Based on his IQ level the parents are adviced to send their kids to that particular schools
IQ level 50-80:special schools
IQ level 30-50:trained schools
IQ level below 30:custodial care.
- Sympathetic attitude from parents,relatives,neighbours.