Measles is acute viral infectious disease characterised by high fever,nasal catarrh ,cough and blotchy rash. Pathognomonic sign of Measles is koplik’s spots.Measles is viral infectious disease commonly seen in childrens and is one the killer disease of India.
- Measles is worldwide problem and case are recorded all over the globe.
- Measles is common in cold,winter season.
- Measles virus spreads to another person through the human respirtaory discharge by direct contact or droplet infections.
- Predisposing factors of Measles
- Poor sanitation,poor nutrition and overcrowding.
- Incubation period of Measles is 8-14 days.
- Common age group of Measles is 3-5 years.
- Measles is divided into three stages
- Prodromal stage.
- Exanthematous stage.
- Convalescent stage.
- Prodromal stage
- Duration of 1-4 days
- The onset of Measles is sudden with high fever,coryza,sneezing,lachrymation,photophobia,hoarseness,hacking cough.
- Temperature 40-41 degree celsius
- Key pathognomonic sign is koplik’s spot. koplik’s spots are tiny whitish spots at the buccal mucous membrane opposite the upper second molar.
duration 4-7 days
Rise of fever on 4th day with headache,retro-orbital pain,lachrymation,photophobia,hacking cough,rash appears on 4th day. rashes appear on forehead and spreads the whole body within few hours.blanches on pressure. rashes look pinkish in colour and are maculo-papular rash.
duration 7 days
fever subsides within 1-2 days,rash fades from above downwards,brown stained desquamtion,desquamation subsides within 1-2 weeks.
Early complications-otitis media,bronchitis and pneumonia late complications-bronchiectasis,subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
- Bed rest till fever and rashes disappears.
- Avoid very cold things.
- Plenty of fluids to be given to the patient.
- Avoid watching tv or reading boks untill conjuctivitis subsides.
- Isolation of children from going to school 7 days after defervescence
- Prevention of close contacts
- Hygienic disposal of infected secretions.
- Immunization of vaccine MMR.