Malaria is tropical disease and vector borne infection caused by the bite of vector ‘FEMALE ANOPHELINE‘ mosquito . Anopheline mosquito is said to be the source of infection,hemoparasite of genus plasmodium.
Malaria is parasitic infection,characterised by intermittent fever(periodical paroxysms) having chill,heat and sweat stages,along with anaemia and splenomegaly.
- Malaria is common in subtropics and tropic regions.
- Malaria is common in rainy season.
- Causative organism of Malaria is plasmodium species,which is a parasite of 4 species namely P.vivax,P.ovale,P.malariae,P.falciparum.
- Malaria is transmitted by the bite of female anopheles mosquito and sometimes through contaminated blood transfusion.
- Fact about anopheles mosquito- this mosquito is said to breed in clean water regions.
- No one is immune from getting malaria,only way to get reed of malaria is by mosquito control.
- Incubation period of Malaria is 10-14 days.
Malaria fever is divided into 3 types
- Benign tertian malaria
- Benign quartan malaria
- Malignant malaria.
In Benign tertian malaria(caused by p.vivax and p.ovale),onset of symptoms are sudden and the paroxysm after 48 hours,common in India.
In Benign quartan malaria(caused by P.malariae),paroxysms after 72 hours,rare in India.
In malignant malaria(caused by P.falciparum) has no periodicity.
Common symptoms are malaria are malaise,body ache,nausea,anorexia,weakness. Typical malarial paroxysm consists of 3 stages
- Cold stage
- Sweat stage
- Hot stage
In chill stage,the patient feels intensely chill,begins to shiver,chattering of teeth,skin cold,patient wants to cover with warm clothes.
In heat stage,rise in temperature,with marked headache,eyes congested,intense heat,uncovers himself,nausea,vomiting,intense thirst,pain in upper abdomen.
In sweat stage,profuse,drenching perspiration ,fever drops,patient feels better.
Chronic relapsing malaria.
Rest till paroxysm subsides,bland,nutritive,easily digestible Diet,plenty of fluids,cover with blankets during chill stage.
- Use of mosquito repellants,protective clothing,bed nets.
- Environmental sanitation.