Hypertension is a condition characterised by systemic arterial pressure consistently above 140 mmhg systolic and 90 mmhg diastolic. Normal blood pressure is 120/80 mmhg.
Cause of hypertension is divided into
- Primary(essential) hypertension.
- Secondary hypertension.
Cause for primary hypertension are- idiopathic.
Predisposing causes-smoking,mental stress,hyperlipaemia,excessive intake salts,fats,obesity,lack of physical activity.
Cause for secondary hypertension are:
- Renal cause-chronic renal failure,polycystic kidney disease,hydronephrosis,renal artery stenosis.
- Endocrine cause-thyrotoxicosis,acromegaly,cushing’s syndrome,hyperaldosteronism,phaeochromocytoma.
- Neurological cause-brain tumours,cerebrovascular accident(CVA).
- Other causes are psychogenic,atherosclerosis,polycythaemia,pregnancy.
Clinically hypertension is charcterised by asymptomatic phase during compensatory phase. symptoms like throbbing headache,giddiness,faintness,sleeplessness,epistaxis,angina pectoris,exertional fatigue,decreasing exercise tolerance,oliguria,nocturnal cough.
- Cardiovascular-left ventricular failure(LVF).congestive cardiac failure(CCF),myocardial infarction.
- Cerebral-cerebro-vascular accidents(CVA),hypertension encephalopathy.
- Retinal-hypertension retinopathy.
Treat the cause,stop all the predisposing causes like smoking,mental and physical rest,diet-restrict salt diet,low fat diet,reduce weight if obese,regular moderate exercise.