Emphysema is condition characterised by dilatation of alveoli(situated within the lung cavity) and over aeration of alveoli,with loss of pulmonary elasticity and function,is usually a complication due to long standing chronic bronchitis.
- Predisposing causes of emphysema are
- Chronic bronchitis
- Bronchial asthma
- Occupational hazards : Occupation which requires exceptional forced breathing like glass blower band playing wind musical instruments
- Occurrence of emphysema is common in males.
Emphysema is pathological condition start off with upper respiratory infection lead into lower respiratory infection leading into decreased functioning of the lung capacity and lung volume.
Initially emphysema is asymptomatic( no symptoms).
As the disease progresses the first symptom noticed is dyspnoea. Dyspnoea which is progressive increasing in severity over several years initially on exertion later5 on even during rest.
- Cough which is worse in the morning.
- Expectoration(discharge of cough) is copious in the morning later on it becomes mucoid or mucopurulent(infection)
- Gradual weight loss and weakness signs
- Central cyanosis,clubbing of nails and respiratory rate hurried.
- If left untreated leads to complication like acute respiratory failure,spontaneous pneumothorax and recurrent chest infections.
- The underlying cause to be treated
- As a rule stop smoking
- Keep yourself warm,avoid exposure to cold weather.
- Regular breathing exercises.
- If occupation is the cause,take a break from job