Diphtheria is highly infectious disease commonly seen in childrens and is one killer disease of India.
Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease caused by ‘corynebacterium diphtheriae ‘. It is characterised by formation of false membrane formation over the upper respiratory infection,associated with fever,throat pain,cough and cervical lymphadenopathy.
- Diphtheria is spread worldwide and cases have recorded throughout the globe.
- Diphtheria is common in cold winter weather.
- Diphtheria is caused due to anaerobic gram positive bacteria called ‘cornybacterium diptheriea’.
- Diphtheria bacteria is spread through naso-pharyngeal secretions of infected human.
- Diphtheria is transmitted by droplet infection.
- Incubation period is usually 2-6 days.
- Common age group 3-5years.
Clinical features depend on the site of infection. Diphtheria is of three different type according to the site of infection
- Nasal Diphtheria : Symptoms like blood stained and offensive nasal discharge.
- Faucial Diphtheria : Symptoms are fever,headache,malaise,sore throat,pain during swallowing(mild toxicity). Symptoms like palatine paralysis,difficulty swallowing,nasal regurgitation of food(moderate toxicity). symptoms like petechiae over skin,mucus membrane,haemorrhage from mouth,nose along with cervical lymph node. enlargement(bull neck) are all severe toxicity symptoms.
- Laryngo-tracheal Diphtheria : symptoms like hoarseness ,brassy cough,difficulty,noisy breathing.
- Diphtheritic myocarditis.
- Palatine paralysis.
- Ocular paralysis and facial palsy.
- Isolation to avoid the spread of the disease.
- Strict bed rest,atleast for two weeks.
- During initial stages liquid diet
- During convalescence stage semisolid food
- If patient is unable to swallow and cases of respiratory distress IV glucose.
- PROPHYLACTIC MEASURES
- Administration of DPT vaccine.