Dengue one of the vector borne disease is caused by the bite of aedes aegypti mosquito. Dengue is an acute viral infection transmitted by the bite of aedes aegypti,characterised by saddle back high fever,intense headache,body ache,rash,generalised lymphadenopathy and haemorrhage.
There is no known cause for Dengue. Aedes mosquito is the only cause for Dengue.
IN Dengue due to the bite of aedes mosquito,the number of paltelet counts decrease below 1 lach per cumm. Platelet is known to be activated during small wounds,since the number of platelet counts are low,small wounds bleed easily causing haemorrhage and blood loss.
Clinically dengue is characterised into three stages
- Dengue fever(break bone fever)
- Dengue haemorrhagic fever(DHF).
- Dengue shock syndrome.
In dengue fever,the onset of fever is abrupt,with chill and high grade fever,severe distressing pain(break-bone disease),headache over the frontal region,retro-orbital pain(key symptom),loins,limb,joints pain. Pains are aggravated by movement,even move over the ebd brings on pain,intense prostration,anorexia,nausea,vomiting,coryza,lachrymation,delirium,eruptions that appear on the 4th or 6th day with second rise of fever,disappear in order of their appearance by scaly desquamation. Urine,scanty and high coloured.
Criteria for dengue fever:
two or more of the following should be present
- Severe headache
- Retro-orbital pain
- Sever myalgia/arthralgia/back pain,haemorrhagic manifestations,leucopenia.
Complications of Dengue fever are hyperpyrexia,severe haemorrhage.
In Dengue haemorrhagic fever,is evident by plasma leakage. clinically its is characterised by abrupt onset of symptoms with high grade fever,chill,distressing joint,muscle pain,intense prostration,epistaxis,bleeding from gums,haematemesis,melaena.
In Dengue shock syndrome, is manisfested wityh haemorrhagic manifestations having the features of Dengue fever initial
haemorrhagic manifestations,bleeding from injection or other sites,thrombocytopenia less then 100,000/mm or less.
bed rest,antipyretic therapy for fever above 39 degree celsius,cold sponging during fever,oral rehydration therapy with or its equivalent if patient develops moderate dehydration due to vomiting and high fever,IV replacement of electrolytes and fluids,platelet transfusion if haemorrhage.