Cholera is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria vibrio cholerae. cholera is a tropical disease and is characterised by “rice watery stool” diarrhea which are profuse and copious and vomiting with rapid depletion of fluids and electrolytes,resulting in circulatory collapse.
- Cholera is spread worldwide,with cases recorded all over the globe.
- Cholera is caused due the bacteria vibrio cholerae.
- Source of Cholera is human.
- Cholera is transmitted by faeco-oral route.
- Cholera spreads through contaminated water.
- Incubation period of Cholera is 24-72 hours.CLINICAL FEATURES
Clinically,Cholera is divided into three stages:
- Stage of evacuation.
- Stage of collapse.
- Stage of reaction.
In stage of evacuation,symptoms of diarrhea which is painless,profuse and copious,amounting 40 stools in 24 hours.
Character of stools is rice watery stool with flakjes of mucus. Vomiting is effortless,copious and not preceeded by nausea.
In stage of collapse,symptoms like dehydration,cramps,increased thirst,oliguria,restlessness.
In stage of reaction,symptoms start disappearing like cessation of vomiting,diminution of stools
COMPLICATIONS: Renal failure,circulatory failure,metabolic acidosis,hypoglycaemia.
Clinical types of cholera:
- Cholera sicca(commonly seen in old and debilitated persons- this type of cholera has bad prognostic outcome).
- Malignant(asiatic)Cholera(epidemic type with good prognosis).
- Cholera ambulans.
Bed rest along with fluid electrolyte replacement,intravenous and oral route.
ORS,fruit juice,coconut water,apple juice,plain gelatin,isabgol husk in water,especially when diarrhea.
Isolation of Food handlers to be excluded from work till three consecutive negative stool samples.
hygienic disposal of sewage disposal,pure water supply,Immunisation.